kansas carp species

http://www.fws.gov/greatplainsfishandwildlife/documents/CommonCarpinDeweyLakeFinalReportDecember2009_000.pdf. Pearson, W.D., and L.A. Krumholz. 414 pp. http://www.fourseasonscampground.com/fishinginfo.asp. Mississippi State University, Starkville, Mississippi, 12 pp. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Management Data Series 78, Austin, TX. Webster, D.A. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY. and R.R. 1-9. 3. Freshwater Fishes of Louisiana. Fish Commission distributed both mirror carp and leather carp varieties in the late 1800s (Smiley 1886; Cole 1905). Woodling, J. Adults may be more than 60 lbs. Matern, S.A., P.B. Carpenter bees are species in the genus Xylocopa of the subfamily Xylocopinae.The genus includes some 500 bees in 31 subgenera. Miller, R.J., and H.W. 2006. 124 pp. Yerger, and P.R. La Rivers, I. Richardson, M.J., F.G. Whoriskey, and L.H. Inland Fishes of California. 1945. Distribution and status of Ohio River fishes. Some results of carp culture in the United States. Mississippi Game and Fish Commission Jackson, MS. 239 pp. Koehn, J., Brumley, A. and Gehrke, P. (2000) Managing the Impacts of Carp. Fish Commission for 1894, 14:473-486. Zoology of New-York, or the New-York fauna. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1994. Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. 2010. Report on distribution of fish and eggs by the U.S. Miller, R.R., and C.H. Nico, L. G. 2005. Report of the Commissioner for 1886. Smith, C.L. A distributional study of Missouri fishes. Asian carp grow quickly and feed voraciously-can consume 40% of their bodyweight each day. 2000. 2002. Silver carp may jump out of the water when disturbed by boat motors. 26 (8): 6-16. 2003. A., Casper, A. F., and H. M. Hagy. Exotic fishes in Hawaii and other islands of Oceania. Ponds, pond fish and pond fish culture. - Dept. Courtenay, W.R., Jr. 1970. Distribution of fishes in U.S. streams tributary to Lake Superior. Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, IA. 1999. 1902. In their review of the literature, Richardson et al. † Populations may not be currently present. 1958a. U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Washington, D.C. Bajer, P.G., G. Sullivan, and P.W. The Topeka Capital-Journal reports that common carp are the only species that appear to be affected, leading staff to belief that the koi herpes virus is the cause. Scott, W.B., and E.J. 1987. Sunfish When you fish for "bluegill" in Wichita, you may catch bluegill (small mouth, round body), green sunfish (large mouth, long body), or any number of colorful varieties, or hybrid crossbreeds.These sunfish have nests of 8,000 eggs that hatch in 5 days. Patterns of introductions of aquatic organisms to Hawaiian freshwater habitats. Freshwater Fishes of Mississippi. Tebiwa 6(2):12-15. Loar. Becker. Downing. 307-354. Piper, editors. 1986. Great Lakes Fishery Commission Technical Report. 1974. Maryland Conservation Department, Conservation Bulletin 3, Annapolis. 3rd Edition. Common Carp Weight and Size. Annotated list of the fishes of Wisconsin. Jackson, R. Fletcher, E. Awad, R. Moody, and R.J. Reiner. Ecological impacts of an exotic benthivorous fish in large experimental wetlands, Delta Marsh, Canada. Historical changes in large river fish assemblages of the Americas. and F. Ryckman. Random notes on Texas fishes. 1992. Werner, R.G. Journal of Great Lakes Research 30(1):44-57. May 26, 2004. Fowler. A. Poppe of Sonoma, California, imported five specimens from Germany and propagated them in private ponds for commercial purposes, mainly distributing them to applicants as a food fish (Smith 1896; Lampman 1946). Nebraska Game and Parks Commission Lincoln, NE. The introduced fishes of Nevada, with a history of their introduction. In a letter to DeKay, Robinson detailed that he kept the fish in ponds and for several years released one to two dozen carp during the spring in the Hudson River near his residence, thereby creating a commercial fishery for the species. Rule, R. 1885. Wildhaber, C.R. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. 1923. (1995) concluded that common carp has had noted adverse effects on biological systems including destruction of vegetated breeding habitats used by both fish and birds, and an increase in turbidity. Silver ... Missouri impact. The Vertebrates of Arizona. For the latest information on COVID-19, visit http://www.kdheks.gov/coronavirus/index.htm. Nielsen, and J.E. Ozark Events. O'Neil, and J.M. Exotic fishes of Florida – 1994. Bailey, R.M., and M.O. Moyle, P.B. Common Carp. Biennial Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries and Game for Indiana. Fretwell, S. 2004. Downing, and J.G. Hinojosa-Garro, D., and L. Zambrano. Fish Records: Water Body - All Tackle. (1977) hypothesized that it may be spreading from one coastal stream to another through fresh or nearly fresh coastal waters in the Gulf area during periods of heavy rainfall and run-off, periods when salinities are greatly reduced. Whitworth (1996) cited early literature indicating common carp had been introduced into Connecticut as early as the 1840s; however, we question the positive identity of the species. Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings. The Fishes of Indiana: with Descriptions, Notes on Habits and Distribution in the State. 1962. In Great Lakes Fisheries Policy and Management: A Binational Perspective. Ravenel, W.C. 1896. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, MD. However, only a small percentage of common carp records in U.S. open waters are based on koi. Cole, L.J. Asian carp were imported from Asia in the 1970s for aquaculture purposes. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia CIV:89-151. Taylor, J., and R. Mahon. ], Four Seasons Campground and Resort. The freshwater fishes of Europe, v. 5/III; Cyprinidae 2/III, and Gasterosteidae: AULA-G GmbH Wiebelsheim, Germany, p. 85-179. Wyoming Game and Fish Department Bulletin 4, Cheyenne, WY. http://www.kdheks.gov/coronavirus/index.htm, Transferring Fish and Game to Another Person, Education, Exhibition, Collecting, and Salvage Permits, Aquatic Nuisance Species Certification Course, Aquatic Nuisance Species Laws and Regulations, Learn More About Aquatic Nuisance Species. Rasmussen, J.L. September. Ichthyofauna and biogeography of Russell Fork (Big Sandy River - Ohio River). Shields, J.T. Part XVII. 1984. DuluthNewsTribune.com. Records from the early 1880s indicate that common carp stocked in farm ponds frequently escaped into open waters as a result of dam breaks or flood events (Smiley 1886). Commercial carp removal at Lake Mattamuskeet, North Carolina. PLoS ONE 4(5): e5451. Lowe. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 97(1):103-118. 2000. Jenkins, D.E. 1917. 398 pp. Fish. Pérez-Fuentetaja, A., S. Lupton, M. Clapsadl, F. Samara, L. Gatto, R. Biniakewitz, and D.S. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA. 523-556. The status of Moapa coriacea and Gila seminuda and status information on other fishes of the Muddy River, Clark County, Nevada. Kolhler and W. A. Hubert, editors. 1978. Williams. And now, state and federal governments are worried the Great Lakes are next. Contact us if you are using data from this site for a publication to make sure the data are being used appropriately and for potential co-authorship if warranted. 372 pp. They are native to Asia and Europe, although have been introduced worldwide. Pages 523-641 in Report of the Bureau of Fisheries for 1904. 1898. The Fishes of Maryland. Fish management problems of large impoundments on the Missouri River. and R.J. Behnke. Managing invasive carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) for habitat enhancement at Botany Wetlands, Australia. The Fishes of New Mexico. 1946. Effects of management and winter oxygen levels on the fish population of a prairie lake. A checklist of the freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Texas System of Natural Laboratories, Inc. Texas System of Natural Laboratories, Inc. and USGS. 1842. The Southwestern Naturalist 14(3):297-315. ... Missouri River (Kansas, Nebraska) Mississippi River (Illinois, Kentucky*, Tennessee) Ecol. Text by Peteri, A. 1886. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission Scientific and Technical Series 4. Cross, F.B. Southwestern Naturalist 43(2):115-122. Additions to the fish fauna of Oklahoma with a summary of introduced species. Wyoming fishes. Proceedings of the Southeastern Association of Game and Fish Commissions 24: 352-377. Table 1. 393 pp. Most of the Asian carp threatening Kansas are of two species — silver and bighead carp. They directly compete with other fish for food resources. Illinois Natural History Survey Fish Collection Database Search Results. 1971b. 1993. Annual Report of the Arizona Fish Commission, 1883-1884, to Frederick A. Tritle, Governor of the Territory of Arizona. (1996) noted that more than 20,000 common carp were killed by a bacterial disease over a short period of time in the Merrimack River in the late 1970s. 782 pp. Hocutt, and C.R. Nearly all KDWPT facilities remain open to the public. Brown, C.J.D. But carp are more sluggish in the cold so they were easier to maneuver. Crossman. Pierce. PCB and PBDE levels in wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from eastern Lake Erie. 1981. These methods are accepted for catching all species of fish, ... Common carp, grass carp, bighead carp and silver carp may not be used as live bait but may be used as dead or cut bait. Southwest Events. There is some question as to when and where common carp was first introduced into the United States. Fishes in Kansas. Carp in North America. The aquatic resources of the Hawaiian Islands. The Freshwater Fishes of North Carolina. New York State Museum Bulletin 60, Zoology 9. 1991. 2003. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY. 1984. Papers of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 58:265-300. Most of the Asian carp threatening Kansas are of two species — silver and bighead carp. Smith. 207 pp. Linder, A.D. 1963. 1903. 1979. 1963. 2001. 1956. Asian carp are invasive fish that grow fast, jump high and have taken over large swaths of the Mississippi watershed. Bigger carp problems elsewhere. Preliminary report on an investigation of the fishes and fisheries of the Hawaiian Islands. 2001. 1952. Wiley, editors. Zoogeography of fishes of the lower Ohio-upper Mississippi basin. Gilbert, C.H., and N.B. 2001. JS Online. Journal of Wildlife Management 17(3):312-317. In California, carp have been implicated in the decrease in water clarity in Clear Lake, Lake County, and in the gradual disappearance of native fishes (Moyle 1976). A review of the history and results of the attempts to acclimatize fish and other water animals in the Pacific states. Distribution of Fishes in North and South Dakota Basins Affected by the Garrison Diversion Unit. Utah Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 13:155-183. Bighead Carp. Santucci, and D.H. Wahl. 1983. Tons of them in the Missouri and Kansas rivers and all their creeks up to the reservoir dams. Eddy, S., and J.C. Underhill. Williams. Oklahoma State University Press, Stillwater, OK. Miller, A.I., and L.G. As reported by KDWPT, Asian carp have been reported in increased populations below Bowersock Dam in Lawrence, and below Water One’s weir in Johnson County. 1976. Key to the Fishes of Northern Europe. Effects of Common Carp on Reproduction, Growth, and Survival of Largemouth Bass and Bluegills. Eder, S. and C.A. 1965. Nico, L., E. Maynard, P.J. 1974. Management of nonindigenous aquatic fish in the U.S. National Park System. Pages 413-456 in C.H. Jansen, C. 2003. Biota Information System of New Mexico BISON: Common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Fish and Wildlife Service, Gainesville, FL. 1978. Pages 657-890 in Report of the Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries for 1884, Part XII. Page accessed March 5, 1998). Bellrichard (1996) found that alterations in macrophyte biomass are due more to direct effects of common carp. - Natural Resource Management Associates, Le Claire, IA. 1997. 1884. Sims Printing Company, Inc., Phoenix, AZ. Scofield. Trautman, M.B. Southwestern Naturalist 36(2):186-193. Pflieger (1997) reported that the total weight and value of common carp taken by commercial fishermen in Missouri exceeded that of any other fish. Carp is only established in the Florida panhandle. Wolfe, M.D., V.J. Franklin. 1979. 1998. Journal of Wildlife Management 31: 181-188. Notes of a collection of fishes from the Colorado Basin in Arizona. Swingle, and T. Scott, Jr. 1964. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1577/M05-205.1. Bighead and silver carp have scaleless head; body scales are very small. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Sciences 63:97-102. Underwater Naturalist Vol. Power, G.J. Journal of Fish Biology 18: 271-290. Amer. Shebley, W.H. 1905. McAllister, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980 et seq. 1895. Augusta, ME. Emery, L. 1985. Review of fish introduced into the Great Lakes, 1819-1974. 1997. Cudmore-Vokey, B., and E.J. Prepared for the Aquatic Nuisance Species Coordinator, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service – Region 6, 134 Union Boulevard, Lakewood, Colorado . Fishes of the Vermillion River, South Dakota. Annual Report of Missouri River Benthic Fish Study PD-95-5832. April 24, 2001. Smith (1896) reported that common carp first appeared in the United States in 1872 when J. Mettee, M.F., E. O'Neil, R.D. DeKay, J.E. Checklists of the fish fauna of the Laurentian Great Lakes and their connecting channels. Schrage, L.J. Moore, H.H., and R.A. Bream. Elsen, and G.W. California Fish and Game. 1982. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. Miller. VIII. U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Washington, D.C. Red River Authority of Texas. Fishes of Wisconsin. Robison. Miller, R.R. 186 pp. A list of the fishes of New Jersey, with off-shore species. Biology and ecology of carp in: Cooper E.L. Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme: Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758). As with most exotics, carp have been detrimental to our native species. Fish Commission for the season of 1885-'86. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Jackson, Z.J. Internationale Revue der gesamten Hydrobiologie 454:463-480. USFWS. Commercial fishing in the Mobile Delta, Alabama, during the period of July 1, 1963 to June 30, 1964. Quist, J.A. 82(2): 66-80. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), sport fishes, and water quality: ecological thresholds in agriculturally eutrophic lakes. 1929. Oregon State University Bookstores, Inc., Corvallis. The common carp is regarded as a pest fish because of its widespread abundance and because of its tendency to destroy vegetation and increase water turbidity by dislodging plants and rooting around in the substrate, causing a deterioration of habitat for species requiring vegetation and clean water (Cole 1905; Cahoon 1953; Bellrichard 1996; Laird and Page 1996). Sigler. Evermann. Bean, T.H. Effects of adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) on multiple trophic levels in shallow mesocosms. Douglas, N.H. 1974. $20 FOR 1 … Bighead and silver carp have scaleless head; body scales are very small. Silvers are the jumpers and usually weigh 20 to 40 pounds. Bait fishes of the lower Colorado River, from Lake Mead, Nevada, to Yuma, Arizona, with a key for identification. Scoppettone, G.G., P.H. 2001). Food habits of the carp, Cyprinus carpio L. in five Oklahoma reservoirs. Pages 285-320 in C.C. 1976. California Department of Fish and Game. If you catch an Asian carp somewhere other than the Kansas, Missouri, Big Blue, and Wakarusa Rivers, freeze it in a sealed plastic bag, note the date and location, and call the Emporia Research Office at (620) 342-0658 or email the Aquatic Nuisance Species Coordinator. Pflieger (1975) noted that the common carp tends to concentrate in large numbers where cannery or slaughter-house wastes are emptied into streams. Ross, S. 2001. 2001. Brenneman. Edmund W. Stiles, Somerset, NJ. The Inland Fishes of Mississippi. 1914. 2003. Tucson. 1982. Part IV. Countryman, W.D. Report of the Commissioner for 1889 to 1891. Phillips, G.L., W.D. 1994. Holton, G.D. 1990. 1977. Arlinghaus, R. and T Mehner. Report of the Commissioner for 1885. Ward's Natural Science Bulletin 10(69):1, 4, 6. Agricultural Experimental Station, Kansas State University, Bulletin 441:1-43. 1975. Ritz. Schramm, H. L., Jr. and M. C. Basler. Miller, S.A., and T.A. of Wildlife & Parks Asian Carp Fact Sheet Blatchley, W.S. Fishes of Arizona. Hunt. Hall, G.E. University of Minnesota Press Minneapolis, MN. Wetlands 30:657-667. The life histories of some Connecticut fishes. 1971. Temporal and spatial trends of organochlorides and mercury in fishes from the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair corridor, Canada. 2 (4th ed.). American Fisheries Society. Part XIV. Master's Thesis, University of Georgia, Athens, GA. Wanner et al 2009. Hildebrand, S.F. Fishes of Oxbow Lakes of Washington. Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, NY. Keys to Oregon freshwater fishes. Fishes of the Pajaro River System. The technical term is Cyprinid herpesvirus 3, a highly contagious virus with an equally high mortality rate that appears to only infect fish in the Cyprinidae family, mainly the common carp in Kansas waters. Northwestern Pa. waters. For this reason, it may be responsible for the decline of the razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus in the Colorado River basin (Taylor et al. White. Michigan Fish Atlas Maps. Aquaculture 129:3-48. Bulletin of the U.S. McNyset, J.B. Williams, A.T. Peterson, and E.O. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Cyprinus carpio are found here. 322 pp. Fishes of Utah. 1988. McCann. Wiltzius, W.J. 2, pp. Effect of carp on vegetation in a Lake Erie marsh. Asian carp (bighead, black, grass, and silver carp) were imported to the United States in the … 1988. Pages 189-213 in new directions in research, management and conservation of Hawaiian freshwater stream ecosystems. Idaho's alien fishes. “Some of Kansas’ best hopes for aquaculture growth and expansion lie with regionally popular and readily marketable species. Platania, S.P. Non-native fishes known from Massachusetts freshwaters. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa. Natural salinity tolerances of some freshwater fishes. 1939. Another cultured variety occasionally found in open waters is the Israeli carp (Robison and Buchanan 1988). 1987. 1941. In its native range, the species occurs in coastal areas of the Caspian and Aral Seas (Berg 1964; Barus et al., 2001) as well as the estuaries of large Ukrainian and Russian rivers. A brief description follows: Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan (S.C.O.R.P), Hiking, Biking, & Horseback Riding Trails, Kansas Department of Wildlife, Parks and Tourism. Sigler, W.F., and J.W. 1974. Crowl. 1946. 2004. Grass Carp: 4-20; Gallons of water per 100 fish for 20 minutes of oxygen 4-6" catfish- 10 gal 6-8" catfish- 10 gal 8-10" catfish- 10 gal Bluegill- 10 gal Hybrid bluegill- 10 gal Crappie- 15 gal Bass- 10 gal Redear- 10 gal 1 lb fatheads/shiners- 5 gal These are very general stocking rates. The Fishes of Missouri. As far as jumping, the silver carp jump when startled, other species of Asian carp do not. 1973. Smithsonian Books, Washington, DC. Uses and effects of cultured fishes in aquatic ecosystems. 2001. Gilbert. 2004. LTRMP 96-R008. Fishes of Maine. 2003. State Biological Survey and University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Miscellaneous Publication 45, Topeka, KS. Report on the fishes of Ohio. Suttkus, and J.M. Available at URL http://www.seagrant.umn.edu/news/2004/may11.html. Report of the Commissioners of Fisheries of Maryland to the General Assembly. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY. Boschung, H.T., Jr., and R.L. Wedekind, H., Hilge, V., Steffens, W., 2001. Fish Commission examined fish taken from the Hudson River, as well as area fish then being sold on the New York markets, and reported that they were goldfish or goldfish hybrids and not true common carp (Redding 1884; Cole 1905). Barus, V., M. Peaz, and K. Kohlmann. Inland Fishes of Washington. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. 1997. Lougheed, V.L., T. Theÿsmeÿer, T. Smith, and P. Chow-Fraser. The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. Common carp abundance, biomass, and removal from Dewey and Clear lakes on the Valentine National Wildlife Refuge: Does trapping and removing carp payoff? http://www.michigan.gov/cgi/0,1607,7-158-12540_13085_13553-30538--,00.html, U.S. Catalogue of the Fishes of New York. Page, L.M., and B.M. Project 342-303-815. 2010. Managing a migratory pest species: a selective trap for common carp. 166 pp. Checklist of the recent fishes of Vermont. Northeast Events. Baird, S.F. Boltz, and L.R. Hydrobiologia 632(1):235-245. Summary Report. 2000. Parrish. 1890. IN Stroud, R.H., ed. 1974. The distribution, status, and ecology of the fishes of the Conasauga River system. Mayden. Michigan State University Press, East Lansing, MI, pp. Scarnecchia. State Record Listing. The carp is now one of the most widespread and abundant large fish in the state. Distribution and ecology of stream fishes of the Sacramento-San Joaquin drainage system, California. Gewurtz, S.B., S.P. Pages 353-380 in Report of the Commissioner for the year ending June 30, 1901. Accessed 11/1/13. 1984). pp. University of the State of New York Bulletin 278. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 99(4):700-707. 1960. Accessed 24 September 2010. Pflieger, W.L. In addition to the normal scaled carp, the U.S. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. Pages 381-499 in Report of the Commissioner for the year ending June 30, 1901. U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Washington, D.C. Wydoski, R.S., and R.R. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Fort Collins, CO. ORNL/sub/79-7831/1. Response to USGS/BRD-G nonindigenous questionnaire. The Common Carp can grow up to a maximum length of 5 feet (1.5 metres) and reach a maximum weight of over 80 lb (37.3 kg). 1996. 1991. 1971; Eder and Carlson 1977; Panek 1987). 1975. Carvalho. Deacon, J.E., and J.E. Buchanan. Hartel, K.E. Hocutt, and E.O. 1905. Spatial variability in the response of lower trophic levels after carp exclusion from a freshwater marsh. Do not release the fish back into the water. Great Lakes commercial fisheries: historical overview and prognosis for the future. Black carp have large scales, with a blackish brown body. Distribution, biology, and management of exotic fish. 203 pp. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 165: 1-93. Evermann. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science 38:96-102. Feeding habits are similar in the U.S., where the diet is composed of organic detritus (primarily of plant origin), chironomids, small crustaceans, and gastropods (Summerfelt et al. This feeding behavior also destroys rooted aquatic plants that provide habitat for native fish species and food for waterfowl (Dentler 1993). National Wildlife Refuge System Invasive Species. Raasch, M.S., and V.L. Schramm, Jr., and R.G. California's Yolo Bypass: Evidence that flood control can be compatible with fisheries, wetlands, wildlife, and agriculture. Carp in Kansas. Geological Survey of Alabama Bulletin 107. Freshwater Biology 50(3):403-417. 1995. Alien fishes in the waters of the Pacific northwest. Asian carp are fast-growing invasive species that for decades have pushed out native marine life up and down the Mississippi watershed. Jordan, D.S., and B.W. Pages 6-72 in Report of the Commissioner for the year ending June 30, 1895, Part XXI. The species generally inhabits lakes, ponds, and the lower sections of rivers (usually with moderately flowing or standing water), but is also known from brackish-water estuaries, backwaters, and bays (Barus et al. Distribution of Green River fishes in Utah and Colorado following closure of Flaming Gorge Dam. Whitney. Fishes. Scarola, J.F. In North America, the common carp inhabits brackish and saline coastal waters of several states bordering the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and Gulf of Mexico (Schwartz 1964; Moyle 2002) as well as the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Canada (McCrimmon 1968). Fishes of Utah. Hay, O.P. http://www.nwrinvasives.com/index.asp (Last accessed 2006). Rome. Powers, S.L. 2009. Proceedings of a symposium on the role of fish culture in fisheries management at Ozark, MO. 1992. The Fishes of Oklahoma. Introduced fishes in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Cross, F.B. Walters, D.M. Various unusual genetic strains of common carp have been introduced into open waters the United States. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 49:51-70. Fish Commission for 1895, 40:379-472. Bulletin 184. U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. Halliwell, and A.E. Berg, L.S. October 7, 2003. Silt resuspension and uprooting of aquatic plants caused by feeding activities can disturb spawning and nursery areas of native fishes (Ross 2001) as well as disrupt feeding of sight-oriented predators, such as bass and sunfish (Panek 1987). Berkeley and Los Angeles,CA. A molecular approach to detect hybridization between crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and non-indigenous carp species (Carassius spp. Pierson. Ichthyochory in a temperate river system by common carp (Cyprinus carpio). http://www.fw.vt.edu/fishesex/nmex_main/species/010080.htm. Iowa fish and fishing. Stiles, E.W. Test results should be back within 3 to 4 weeks, said department Chief of Public Affairs Nadia Reimer. Pages 35-477 in Annual Report of the New Jersey State Museum (1905), part II. 168 pp. 1964. Handbook of Fishes of Kansas. Pages 78-138 in Report of the Commissioner for the year ending June 30, 1893, Part XIX. 1991. Southeast Events. Grana, F. - Department of Natural and Environmental Resources of Puerto Rico. 1973. Colorado's little fish: a guide to the minnows and other lesser known fishes in the state of Colorado. (Available from http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/fish/fshries/index.htm). Compendium of introduction date and state and federal annual stocking of various fishes in Colorado, 1972-1978. Voucher specimens: Alabama (UMMZ 103508, 115003, TU 48856, 51966, 130781), Arizona (TU 74792, 78489, 79742), Arkansas (TU 2194, 2204, 44759), Colorado (TU 47337), Florida (TU 22858, 22879, 23654, 34833), Georgia (UGAMNH), Illinois (TU 9944, 125802, 125825), Indiana (TU 19372, 101143), Kansas (TU 42664, 42681), Kentucky (TU 66289), Louisiana (TU 6281, 9202, 15805, 16781), Michigan (TU 15007), Mississippi (TU 32974, 57121, 69483, 85130), Missouri (TU 53843, 54574, 74298), Nevada (TU 47257, 47266), New Jersey (TU 36738), New Mexico (TCWC 0059.01, TU 35686, 38871, 42637, 42656), New York (TCWC 0077.01, TU 36674), North Carolina (TU 29401), North Dakota (UMMZ 94756, 94757), Ohio (TU 3299), Oklahoma (TU 12021, 13790, 141667, 141686), Oregon (TU 121816), South Carolina (TU 145144), South Dakota (TU 58222), Tennessee (TU 33470), Texas (TCWC 1074.01, 07780.03, TU 15777, 21969, 21995, 35583, 35634), Utah (TU 43659, 99064, 99122, 99150), Wisconsin (TU 15748, 173824), many others.

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